Geography of Thailand

Located between 5°30′ and 20°25′ north latitude and 97°20′ and 105°35′ east longitude. The maximum length of the territory from west to east is 780 km, from north to south 1650 km. It is washed from the south by the Gulf of Thailand of the South China Sea, from the southwest by the Andaman Sea, the total length of the coastline is 2614 km. In the Gulf of Thailand, near the border with Cambodia, there are the islands of Chang and Kut, off the Malay Peninsula, the islands of Koh Samui, Koh Phangan, and others. Off the coast of the Andaman Sea, the islands of Surin, Similan, the largest island of Phuket, and other small islands.

According to Allcitycodes, Thailand borders in the southeast with Cambodia along the Dangrek mountain range, in the east and northeast, along the Mekong River – with Laos, in the west – with Myanmar, in the extreme south – with Malaysia.

More than 1/2 of the country’s territory is low-lying alluvial plains in the river valleys, especially the Menam lowland along the Chao Phraya River, located in the central part of the country. The uplands stretch along the northern (Phipannam) and western outskirts (Tanentahunji Ridge) of the country, the Korat flat plateau (100-200 m) – in the northeast. The highest point in Thailand is Mount Inthanon (2595 m) in the west of the country. In the southern part of the country, on the Malay Peninsula, there are plains with island mountains and ridges, the highest mountain is Luang (Khaoluang) (1835 m).

In total, Thailand is occupied by forest approx. 20% of the territory (in 1965 – 54.6%), 35% in agricultural turnover. Extensive logging has led to the loss of forest cover and the emergence of serious environmental problems. Among the peasants and in the cities there were movements in defense of the environment.

Minerals: tin, gypsum, limestone, tungsten, lead, fluorite, brown coal, precious colored stones. Natural gas is being extracted in the Gulf of Thailand (estimated reserves are 172,000 m3), natural gas deposits have been discovered in the province of Khong Khen on the northeastern plateau, and oil deposits in the province of Khampheng Phet. Under the Korat plateau there are deposits of rock salt.

The most common are red-brown soils of the savanna, characteristic of the Korat plateau. In the mountains – mountain-forest red earth, in the river valleys (especially the Chao Phraya River) – alluvial and meadow. Outside the river valleys, in the central part, brown soils of dry forests and shrubs predominate; in the lowlands of the peninsular part, red and yellow soils prevail.

The climate is tropical, monsoon, the average annual temperature is +22-+29°С. Precipitation is 1000-3000 mm per year, in the mountains up to 5000 mm per year. Dry season from November to April (the hottest month is April with a temperature of +35-+40°С, the coolest month is December +20-+31°С, the driest month is January-March; the wettest in the center and north of the country is September (305 mm of precipitation in the south), December (400 mm) In the territory where Bangkok is located, there are three seasons: hot (March-May), rainy (June-October), cool (November-February).

major rivers. Chao Phraya (365 km) – the main water artery of the country – is formed at the confluence of the Ping River (590 km) with its tributary Wang (335 km) and the Nan River (627 km) with its tributary Yom (555 km). Downstream, the Pasak River (513 km) flows into Chaopraya, near the city of Chainat, the channel of Chaopraya splits into branches up to 135 km wide. In general, the Chao Phraya basin reaches 150 thousand km2. The Mekong River, which flows along the border with Laos, is the largest river in Southeast Asia (4,500 km); Maeklong River, formed at the confluence of the Kwe Yai and Kwe Noi rivers.

The flora and fauna of Thailand is rich. Especially widespread are evergreen humid tropical monsoon (rain) multi-layered forests, which remain in most of the Malacca Peninsula, on the coastal plains of the southeast, in the river valleys of Korat, in areas of the north where heavy rainfall occurs. They are dominated by breeds such as yang, takyan and other representatives of the dipterocarp family. Bamboos grow in the middle tier, shrubs, herbs, mosses, orchids grow in the lower tier. In the north, at an altitude of 600-1200 m, there are pine forests; higher up, pine alternates with oak. In the north, moist monsoon forests are widespread, represented by mixed deciduous tropical forest (teak, sal, etc.) and evergreen forest in the more humid southern regions. On the Korat Plateau there are savannas, dry low-growing monsoon forest, xerophilic light forests and shrubs.

Among animals, the domesticated elephant occupies a special place. Among predators there are: tiger, leopard, panther, weaver cat, reed cat, Bengal cat. Between the Yom and Ping rivers there is a black Himalayan bear. The Malayan bear is small in size. Of the smaller predators – mongooses. In the forests along the banks of the rivers live miniature hornless deer – Malay and Kanchil, not exceeding a height of 46 cm. In evergreen forests, there is a “barking deer”, a sambar deer. Wild bulls are represented by gaurs, bentengs. Among the inhabitants of the forest there are many different monkeys – gibbons, short-tailed macaque, rhesus macaque, mangoors, crested monkeys, on the plains – nocturnal lorises. Thailand is home to 75 species of lizards, 13 species of poisonous snakes, including king cobra, sea snakes, crocodiles (large Indian and small Siamese). Lots of insects including termites, blood-sucking, flying cockroaches. The realm of birds is diverse. On the plains, in the fields there are herons, storks, ibis. The forests are inhabited by pheasants, peacocks, hornbills, 16 species of kingfishers, myna (“talking starling”). Birds of prey are represented by eagles, falcons, buzzards, kites. The rivers and the sea coast are rich in various species of fish, sawfish come across, fishermen hunt for sharks.

Geography of Thailand